Effect Of A Diet Contaminated With Ochratoxin A At The Highest Level Allowed By Eu On The Inflammation And The Oxidative Stress In The Spleen Of Weaned Piglets

Daniela E Marin


Ochratoxins are fungal secondary metabolites produced during storage by fungus of the genera Aspergillus, mainly in tropical and warmer regions and by Penicillium verrucosum, in temperate and colder areas. The most commonly occurring and most toxic member is ochratoxin A (OTA). OTA has a multiple toxicity, being nephrotoxic, genotoxic and immunotoxic. According to the Commission Recommendation no. 576/2006 concerning the presence of OTA in products intended for animal feeding, the maximum level admitted for OTA in complementary and complete feeding stuffs for pigs is 0.05ppm. However, these guidance values are only a recommendation, and the establishment of a legal regulation needs additional toxicological data issued from farm animal experiments. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the effect of the EU recommended OTA maximal tolerable feed concentration (0.05 mg/kg) on the spleen of weaned pigs.


ochratoxin, weaned piglets, EU regulation, spleen.

Full Text:



Armstrong L., Jordan N., Millar A. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) regulation of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) from human alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes. Thorax. 1996, 51, 143-149.

Bouhet S., Oswald I.P. The effects of mycotoxins, fungal food contaminants, on the intestinal epithelial cell-derived innate immune response. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2005, 18, 199-209.

Cosimi S., Orta L., Mateos S., Cortés F. The mycotoxin ochratoxin A inhibits DNA topoisomerase II and induces polyploidy in cultured CHO cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009, 23, 1110-1115.

Creppy E.E., Betbeder A.M., Gharbi A., Counord, J., Castegnaro M., Bartsch H., Moncharmont P., Fouillet B., Chambon P., Dirheimer G. (1991). Human ochratoxicosis in France. In Mycotoxins, Endemic Nephropathy and Urinary Tract Tumours.

Castegnaro M., Plestina R., Dirheimer G., Chernozemsky I.N., Bartsch H., Eds. IARC Scientific Publ. Lyon, France.

Denli M., Perez J. F. Ochratoxins in Feed, a Risk for Animal and Human Health: Control Strategies. Toxins (Basel). 2010, 2, 1065–1077.

Diekman, M.A., Green, M.L. 1992. Mycotoxins and reproduction in domestic livestock. J Anim Sci 70: 1615-1627.

Hagelberg S., Hult K., Fuchs R. Toxicokinetics of ochratoxin A in several species and its plasma-binding properties. J Appl Toxicol. 1989, 9, 91-96.

Ke Y., Liu K., Huang G.Q., Cui Y., Kaplan H.J., Shao H., Sun D. Anti-inflammatory role of IL-17 in experimental autoimmune uveitis. J Immunol. 2009, 182, 3183-90.

Khatoon A., Zargham Khan M., Khan A., Saleemi M.K., Javed I.. Amelioration of Ochratoxin A-induced immunotoxic effects by silymarin and Vitamin E in White Leghorn cockerels. J Immunotoxicol. 2013, 10, 25-31.

Lawrence T. The Nuclear Factor NF-κB Pathway in Inflammation. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol.; 2009, 1, a001651.

Lea T, Steien K, Størmer FC. Mechanism of ochratoxin A-induced immunosuppression. Mycopathologia. 1989, 107, 153-159.

Marin D.E., Pistol G.C., Neagoe I.V., Calin L., Taranu I. Effects of zearalenone on oxidative stress and inflammation in weanling piglets. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013, 58:408-415.

Odhav B, Adam JK, Bhoola KD. Modulating effects of fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A on leukocytes and messenger cytokines of the human immune system. Int Immunopharmacol. 2008, 8, 799-809.

Ramyaa P, Krishnaswamy R, Padma VV. Quercetin modulates OTA-induced oxidative stress and redox signalling in HepG2 cells — up regulation of Nrf2 expression and down regulation of NF-κB and COX-2. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 2014, 1840, 681–692.

Stoev SD, Stefanov M, Denev S, Domijan AM, Peraica M. Experimental mycotoxicosis in chickens induced by ochratoxin A and penicillic acid and intervention with natural plant extracts. Veterinary Research Communications. 2004, 28, 8, 727-746.

Varga J., Kevei E., Ryniu E., Teren J., Kozakiewic Z. Ochratoxin production by Aspergillus species. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1996, D62(12): 4461–4464.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies publish open access articles under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Licence (read full legal code).


ISSN print 1841 - 9364
ISSN online 2344 - 4576
ISSN-L  1841 - 9364
(former ISSN 1221-5287, E-ISSN 1841-9364)

PAPER ACCESS: Full text articles available for free
FREQUENCY: Semiannual

Banat´s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine "King Michael I of Romania" from Timisoara
Bioengineering Faculty of Animal Resources
300645, Timişoara, Calea Aradului 119, Romania

E-mail: spasb [at] animalsci-tm.ro
Phone: +40-256-277160, Fax.: +40-256-277110