Growth performance and survival rate of Boer x Central Highland goat under extensive production system

Zeleke Tesema


This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and survival rate of Boer x Central Highland goats reared extensively. Besides, the prolificacy and mothering ability of Central Highland goats were evaluated. Data collected under field condition were utilized for this study. A general linear model procedure of SAS was used to analyse the growth and prolificacy data. The analyses of survival data were performed using the GENMOD procedure of SAS by a linear logit model. The overall least squares mean for birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (3MWT), six-month weight (6MWT), weight gain from birth to weaning (ADG1) and weight gain from weaning to six months of age (ADG2) for Boer crossbred goats were 2.73 kg, 10.4 kg, 14.5 kg, 84.4 g/day and 49.4 g/day, respectively. Whereas the overall least-squares mean BWT, 3MWT, 6MWT, ADG1 and ADG2 for Central Highland goat were 1.79 kg, 6.77 kg, 10.6 kg, 54.1 g/day and 50.4 g/day, respectively. Sex, birth type and year of birth were the major determinants for growth traits. The pre-weaning survival rate of crossbred goats was 81.7%. The overall mean litter size at birth, litter size at weaning and weaning rate for Central Highland does were 1.48 kids, 1.21 kids, 81.7%, respectively. The prolificacy was tended to increase with the increase in parity of does. The pre-weaning growth performance of Boer crossbreds was superior to the indigenous Central Highland goats. However, the post-weaning growth rate was found to be similar for both genotypes. Central Highland goat had a moderate prolificacy and mothering ability. There should be a further study regarding the major causes of mortality of kids reared under an extensive production system.


Central Highland, growth rate, mothering ability, prolificacy, survival

Full Text:



Solomon, A.K., Mwai, O., Grum, G., Haile, A., Rischkowsky, B.A., Solomon, G. and Dessie, T. Review of goat research and development projects in Ethiopia. ILRI Project report. Nairobi, Kenya: International Livestock Research Institute, 2014, 11 pp.

Alade, N.K., Dilala, M.A. and Abdulyekeen, A.O. Phenotypic and genetic parameter estimates of litter size and body weights in goats. International Journal of Science and Nature. 2010, 1, 262-266.

Abegaz, S. and Gizaw, S. Small ruminant research and development in Ethiopia. EIAR/ATA/ICARDA Workshop on small ruminant breeding programs in Ethiopia Debre Birhan, 17-18 December, 2015, pp. 1-24.

Malan, S.W. The improved Boer goat. Small Ruminant Research, 2000, 36, 165 - 170.

Farm-Africa. Goat Types of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Physical Description and Management Systems. Published jointly by FARMAfrica, London, UK, and ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya, 1996, 76 pp.

SAS. SAS user's guide version 9.1: Statistics. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.2002.

Girma, M., Getachew, S., Tera, A., Getaneh, D. and Birhanu, T. Participatory on-farm evaluation and demonstration of 25% crossbred (Boer x Woyito-Guji) goats in Benatsemay district of South Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2016, 6(21).

Deribe, B. and Taye, M. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Central Highland goats in Sekota District, Ethiopia. Agricultural Advances, 2013, 2(8), 250-258.

Alemu, A. On-farm phenotypic characterization and performance evaluation of

Abergelle and Central highland goat breeds as an input for designing communitybased breeding program. M.Sc. Thesis, Haramaya University, Ethiopia, 2015, 61-84pp.

Zergaw, N., Dessie, T. and Kefelegn, K. Growth performance of Woyto-Guji and Central Highland goat breeds under traditional management system in Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 2016, 28 (1).

Gatew, H., Hassen, H., Kebede, K., Haile, A., Raimundo, NBL and Rischkowsky, B. Early growth trend and performance of three Ethiopian goat ecotypes under smallholder management systems. Agric & Food Secur., 2019, 8(4), 1-7.

Zhang, C.Y., Zhang, Y., Xu, D.Q., Li, X., Su, J. and Yang, L.G. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for growth traits in Boer goat. Livest. Sci., 2009b, 124, 66- 71.

Mohammed, B, Ayinalem, H, Hailu, D and Tesfaye, A. Estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for growth traits in Arsi-Bale Goat in Ethiopia. J. Anim Sci Adv., 2013, 3(9), 439-448.

Abd-Allah , S.M.I., Mohamed, H.H., Abd- Elrahman and EL-Kady, R.I. Assessment of some productive performance of Boer goats and their crosses with Egyptian Baladi goats. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 2011, 9(12), 259-265.

Deribe, B., Tilahun, M., Lakew, M., Belayneh, N., Zegeye, A., Walle, M., Ayichew, D., Ali, S.T. and Abriham, S. On-station growth performance of crossbred goats (Boer x Central Highland) at Sirinka, Ethiopia. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2015, ISSN 1819-1878 / DOI: 10.3923/ajas.2015.

Mustefa, A. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting survivability, growth and

reproductive performance of Boer and Central Highland goats and their crosses reared at Ataye farm, North Shoa, Ethiopia. M.Sc.Thesis, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia, 2017, 34-51 pp

Deribe, B. Growth, reproductive performance and carcass characteristics of Abergelle and Central Highland goat types under traditional and slightly improved management in Sekota woreda. M.Sc. Thesis, Haramaya University, Ethiopia, 2008, 34-42 pp.

Mekuriaw, Z. Environmental influences on pre-weaning growth performances and mortality rates of extensively managed Somali goats in Eastern Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 2007, 19(186).

Belay, S., Gebru,G., Godifey,G., Brhane, M., Zenebe, M., Hagos, H. and Teame T. Reproductive performance of Abergelle goats and growth rate of their crosses with Boer goats. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 2014, 26 (1).

Debele, G., Duguma, M. and Hundessa, F. Effect of different factors on mortality rate of Arsi- Bale kids in mid rift valley of Ethiopia. Global Veterinaria. 2011,6 (1), 56-60.

Tesema, Z., Alemayehu, K., Kebede, D., Getachew, T., Kefale, K. and Deribe, B. Reproductive performance and milk production of Central Highland and

Boer x Central Highland goats. Heliyon, 2020, 6(2020) e05836.

Al-Najjar, K., Salhab, S., Al-Merestani, R., Kasem, R., Al-Azzawi, W., Dawa, M., Omed, H. and Saatci, M. Environmental factors affecting kid mortality in Shami Goats. KafkasUniv Vet FakDerg., 2010, 16, 431-435.

Bolacali, M., Öztürk, Y., Yilmaz, O., Küçük, M. and Karsli, M.A. Effect of genotype and non-genetic factors on growth traits and survival rates in Turkish indigenous Hair goats and their first cross with Boer bucks. Indian J. Anim. Res., 2017, 51(6), 975- 981.

Browning Jr, R. and Leite-Browning, M.L. Birth to weaning kid traits from a complete diallel of Boer, Kiko and Spanish meat goat breeds semi-intensively managed on humid subtropical pasture. J. Anim. Sci., 2011, 89, 2696-2707.

Tesema, Z., Tilahun, M., Deribe, B., Lakew, M., Belayneh, N., Zegeye, A. and Aychew, D. Effect of non-genetic factors on preweaning growth, survivability and prolificacy of Central Highland x Boer crossbred goats in North Eastern Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 2017, 29 (7).

Debele, G., Duguma, M., Hundessa, F., Messele, F., Kebede, T. and Negash, M. Study on major causes of kid mortality in Adami Tulu Jido Kombolcha district of Oromia, Ethiopia. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am., 2013, 4(2), 110-115.

Zhang, C.Y., Chen, S.L., Li, X., Xu, D.Q., Zhang, Y. and Yang, L.G. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for reproduction traits in the Boer dam. Livest. Sci, 2009a, 125(1), 60–65.

Kebede, T., Haile, A., Dadi, H. and Alemu, T. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for reproduction traits in indigenous Arsi-Bale goats. Trop Anim Health Prod., 2012, 44, 1007–1015.

Mia, M.M., Khandoker, M.A.M.Y., Husain, S.S., Faruque, M.O., Notter, D.R. Estimation of genotypic and phenotypic parameters for some reproductive traits of Black Bengal does. Iran. J. Appl. Anim. Sci., 2013, 3 (4), 829–834.

Rashidi, A., Bishop, S.C., Matika, O. Genetic parameter estimates for pre-weaning performance and reproduction traits in Markhoz goats. Small Rumin. Res., 2011, 100 (2-3),100–106.

Maria, G.A. and Ascaso, M.S. Litter size, lambing interval and lamb mortality of Salz, Rasa Aragonesa, Romanov and F1 ewes on accelerated lambing management. Small Rumin. Res., 1999, 32, 167-172.

Boujenane, I., Chikhi, A., Sylla, M. and Ibnelbachyr. Estimation of genetic parameters and genetic gains for reproductive traits and body weight of D’man ewes. Small Ruminant Research, 2013, 113, 40–46.

Fogarty, N.M., Cummins, L., Stafford , J., Gaunt, G. and Banks, R.G. Opportunities for improvements of maternal performance in the lamb industry. Pp. 309-311 in Proc. 9th Cong. Asian-australasian Assoc. Anim. Prod. Soc. 23 Bienn. Australian Soc. Animal Prod. Univ. New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.2000.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies

Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies publish open access articles under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Licence (read full legal code).


ISSN print 1841 - 9364
ISSN online 2344 - 4576
ISSN-L  1841 - 9364
(former ISSN 1221-5287, E-ISSN 1841-9364)

PAPER ACCESS: Full text articles available for free
FREQUENCY: Semiannual

Banat´s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine "King Michael I of Romania" from Timisoara
Bioengineering Faculty of Animal Resources
300645, Timişoara, Calea Aradului 119, Romania

E-mail: spasb [at]
Phone: +40-256-277160, Fax.: +40-256-277110